How oil began to be used, advantages and features of its use
Oil is the basis of the world market, and many economic processes both domestically and internationally depend on its value. Its role and significance for each person is not fully understood.
Now we will consider what oil is in simple words, what it consists of, how it appeared and where it is extracted, all areas of its use that were still unknown and many other interesting nuances (all about oil).
What is oil?
Oil is a mineral in the form of an oily liquid, which includes a mixture of hydrocarbon components. The name itself in most languages means "mountain" or "rock oil".
In simple words, oil is an oily liquid used to produce fuel (gasoline, kerosene, etc.), and also as a source of raw materials for household chemicals, cosmetics and other products. Oil color is black, brown, cherry, green, yellow. It happens even colorless (transparent). Dark color is most often found in industry and feature films, which served as the basis for phraseology black gold.
Depending on the field, composition and properties, different types of oil are distinguished. Reference are considered Brent, WTI (West Texas Intermediate), Dubai Crude, Urals, Siberian Light and others.
In fact, oil is used in almost all objects surrounding us, but more on that later.
On Wikipedia, oil is a natural oily liquid with a specific odor consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with different molecular weights and other chemical compounds. Translated from Turkish and Persian from the word neft. The smell depends on the amount of sulfur compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons.
People have been using oil for a very long time. Mention of the oil field was found in excavations dating back more than 6,000 BC. It is assumed that oil was used in the construction of the walls of Babylon, in ancient Egypt, India, Greece and not only. Nevertheless, the use of oil was limited only by construction (as a binding material, asphalt) and as an incendiary mixture. So in the history of several centuries, oil was considered the most terrible weapon, stronger than gunpowder. Already in the 20th and 21st centuries, petroleum products acquired special significance when they began to be used as fuel.
What oil is made of
Before considering the chemistry and composition of oil, it is worth mentioning its origin. In total, there are two theories of how oil appeared:
- Organic (biogenic) - oil was formed from the remains of ancient living organisms (plankton, algae) for tens or hundreds of millions of years under the influence of pressure and temperature. This theory is considered dominant and allows you to more accurately predict the appearance of deposits.
- Inorganic (abiogenic) - the formation occurred as a result of a chemical reaction at tremendous pressure and temperature from inorganic substances. This theory adhered to D.I. Mendeleev, unfortunately, the hypothesis did not find practical application and yielded to biogenic.
As for the composition, the oil contains more than 1000 different substances, mainly (90%) of hydrocarbons. In this regard, there is no single oil formula. The remaining 10% is occupied by:
- sulfur (up to 5%);
- A small amount of magnesium, iron, aluminum, copper and other chemical elements is allowed.
As for the hydrocarbon part, it includes about 83-87% of the carbon, the remaining 11-14% is hydrogen.
In addition, upon a deeper examination of what oil consists of, several hundred hydrocarbon compounds can be distinguished:
- paraffinic (50%) - these are mostly liquid hydrocarbons, but in the dissolved state there are also gaseous and solid;
- aromatic, etc.
The formula without taking into account the atoms of different compounds looks like CxHx, and methane with one carbon atom and 4 hydrogen is CH4.
The physical properties of oil are characterized by a molecular weight of 220-400 g / mol and a density of 0.65-1.05 g / cm3. Oil is flammable. Depending on the amount of gas in its composition, the temperature is from -35 to +121 degrees Celsius. Not soluble in water.
The main physical properties of oil:
- viscosity - the property of fluid substances to resist during movement (average values 40 - 60 mm² / s);
- density - the ratio of mass to volume (as a rule, varies from 0.83 to 0.96);
- molecular weight (on average 220 - 400 g / mol);
- t ° of solidification (-62 ... + 35 ° С);
- t ° of flash (-35 ... + 121 ° С).
- Other physical properties:
- thermal properties;
- electrical properties;
- optical properties.
Thus, oil predominantly consists of hydrocarbons in liquid form with dissolved gases and solids. The remaining components are not predominant, with the exception of sulfur, which can occupy up to 5%.
Historical background on oil
The world oil market arose not so long ago - in the 50-60s. XX century, but people began to use oil as fuel a very long time ago.
The history of oil use is presumably in the ancient period.
It is impossible to establish the established date of the first fact of the targeted use of a combustible liquid, but there are certain average figures that give different references.
In the 2-3rd millennium BC oil was known in Ancient Egypt, manual production was carried out on the banks of the Euphrates River, as well as on the territory of Ancient Greece.
Oil escaped from the bowels of the earth through cracks and breaches of the earth's crust, and people collected this dark oily liquid without special oil extraction.
This is one of the mining options. The second option was already more technologically advanced - in the places where the appearance of oil was observed, wells were dug up, where it accumulated, and it remained only to scoop it up.
Today, this simple method has become impossible due to depletion of reserves at shallow depths.
Crude oil was already used in various qualities - oils for torches and lamps, lubricants for mechanisms and wheels, combustible substances for the Greek flame, and even medical means, for example, for scabies and other skin problems.
How oil is extracted
Oil lies in the depths of several tens of meters to 5-6 kilometers. A large number of formations are contained from 1-6 km in depth, and they can contain not only oil. But also gas.
Rocks in which is located
How oil is produced can be summarized as follows:
- Exploration. The coordinates and boundaries of the field are determined, the composition and amount of oil. The profitability of the development of the found deposit is determined by various production methods - fountain, compressor or pump.
- Drilling. In each method, a well is drilled with a thickness of 10 to 100 centimeters of different depths.
Development. The easiest and cheapest way is the fountain. Available in individual fields only at the initial stage of development, when the pressure in the well is high. Compressor - involves the injection of gas or air into the tank, resulting in increased pressure and oil escapes. The advantage of this method is ease of operation and the absence of parts in the installation subject to rapid wear. The disadvantage is the high cost of equipment. Pumping is the most common. The pump necessary for development in a particular place, even at sea, is selected. In Russia, 855 is mined in a similar way.
The oil production process has many nuances. To begin with, we will briefly examine how oil is extracted using the step-by-step algorithm as an example:
- Exploration and search for deposits (for example, using scientific geophysical methods for exploration of the earth's surface by oscillations);
- Drilling and assessment of economic prospects;
- Installation of equipment for mining;
- Production of crude oil and gas mixture from a well, as a rule, it is found in the so-called "traps", ie underground tanks;
- Sending raw materials through the pipeline to the booster pump station (BPS);
- Removal by separation of gas, process water and other bodies;
- Sending refined oil to the preparation and processing workshop (CSPN);
- Final refining and dispatch of “marketable” oil by logistical routes to the required address, for example, to an oil refinery (refinery).
What is oil used for?
The best known in wide circles is the use of oil as a fuel:
- diesel fuel;
- fuel oil;
- Types of fuel
However, fuel is far from the only use of oil. As already mentioned, oil refined products are widely used in production everywhere:
- polyethylene (bags, pipes, films, etc.);
- polypropylene (car parts, carpets, dishes, household appliances, medical instruments and more);
- polystyrene (insulation for residential premises, packaging, plastic barrels, etc.);
- polyvinyl chloride (plastic windows, false ceilings and others);
- synthetic rubber (rubber, shoes, clothing, etc.).
Oil is used in various industries, including cosmetology. Raw is needed for the construction of power lines and pipelines.
Methods of using oil, according to their popularity and volumes of processing of raw materials:
- Production of liquid fuel - gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation kerosene, fuel oil.
- The manufacture of plastic, which is used for the production of household appliances, wires, stationery, toys.
- The creation of drugs. Everyone knows - salicylic acid, aspirin, antibiotics, drugs against allergies and viruses.
- Textile production. It is an integral element of synthetic fabrics such as acrylic, nylon, lycra, polyester from which shoes, bags are sewn. Underwear, clothes.
- Cosmetology - nail polishes, eyeliner and eyebrow pencils, aromas.
- And also derivatives of petroleum products are used for the manufacture of jewelry and dyes.